Aczel, Balazs, Bence Palfi, Aba Szollosi, Marton Kovacs, Barnabas Szaszi, Peter Szecsi, Mark Zrubka, Quentin F. Gronau, Don van den Bergh, and Eric-Jan Wagenmakers. 2018. “Quantifying Support for the Null Hypothesis in Psychology: An Empirical Investigation.” Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 1 (3): 357–66.
Agosta, Sara, Denise Magnago, Sarah Tyler, Emily Grossman, Emanuela Galante, Francesco Ferraro, Nunzia Mazzini, Gabriele Miceli, and Lorella Battelli. 2017. “The Pivotal Role of the Right Parietal Lobe in Temporal Attention.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 29 (5): 805–15.
Alnaes, Dag, Markus Handal Sneve, Thomas Espeseth, Steven Harry Pieter, and Bruno Laeng. 2014. “Pupil Size Signals Mental Effort Deployed During Multiple Object Tracking and Predicts Brain Activity in the Dorsal Attention Network and the Locus Coeruleus.” Journal of Vision 14: 1–20.
Alvarez, G A, and P Cavanagh. 2005. “Independent Resources for Attentional Tracking in the Left and Right Visual Hemifields.” Psychological Science 16 (8): 637–43.
Alvarez, G A, and S L Franconeri. 2007. “How Many Objects Can You Track? Evidence for a Resource-Limited Attentive Tracking Mechanism.” Journal of Vision 7 (13): 1–10.
Alvarez, G A, and A Oliva. 2009. “Spatial Ensemble Statistics Are Efficient Codes That Can Be Represented with Reduced Attention.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (18): 7345–50.
Alvarez, G. A., J. Gill, and P. Cavanagh. 2012. “Anatomical Constraints on Attention: Hemifield Independence Is a Signature of Multifocal Spatial Selection.” Journal of Vision 12 (5): 9–9.
Alvarez, George, and Brian J. Scholl. 2005. “How Does Attention Select and Track Spatially Extended Objects? New Effects of Attentional Concentration and Amplification.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134 (4): 461–76.
Alzahabi, Reem, and Matthew S. Cain. 2021. “Ensemble Perception During Multiple-Object Tracking.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 83 (3): 1263–74.
Anstis, Stuart. 1990. “Imperceptible Intersections: The Chopstick Illusion.” In AI and the Eye, 105–17. London: John Wiley.
Awh, E, and H Pashler. 2000. Evidence for Split Attentional Foci. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 26 (2): 834–46.
Battelli, Lorella, George a Alvarez, Thomas Carlson, and Alvaro Pascual-Leone. 2009. “The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 21 (10): 1946–55.
Battelli, Lorella, Patrick Cavanagh, James Intriligator, Mark J Tramo, and Jason J S Barton. 2001. “Unilateral Right Parietal Damage Leads to Bilateral Deficit for High-Level Motion.” Neuron 32 (1992): 985–95.
Battelli, Lorella, Patrick Cavanagh, Paolo Martini, and Jason J S Barton. 2003. “Bilateral Deficits of Transient Visual Attention in Right Parietal Patients.” Brain: A Journal of Neurology 126 (Pt 10): 2164–74.
Bertoni, Sara, Sandro Franceschini, Luca Ronconi, Simone Gori, and Andrea Facoetti. 2019. “Is Excessive Visual Crowding Causally Linked to Developmental Dyslexia?” Neuropsychologia 130: 107–17.
Bettencourt, Katherine C., Samantha W. Michalka, and David C. Somers. 2011. “Shared Filtering Processes Link Attentional and Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity Limits.” Journal of Vision 11 (10): 22–22.
Bex, P J, S C Dakin, and A J Simmers. 2003. “The Shape and Size of Crowding for Moving Targets.” Vision Research 43 (27): 2895–2904.
Bill, Johannes, Hrag Pailian, Samuel J. Gershman, and Jan Drugowitsch. 2020. “Hierarchical Structure Is Employed by Humans During Visual Motion Perception.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 (39): 24581–89.
Bouma, Herman. 1970. “Interaction Effects in Parafoveal Letter Recognition.” Nature 226 (5241): 177–78.
Bowers, Alex R., R. Julius Anastasio, Sarah S. Sheldon, Margaret G. O’Connor, Ann M. Hollis, Piers D. Howe, and Todd S. Horowitz. 2013. “Can We Improve Clinical Prediction of at-Risk Older Drivers?” Accident Analysis & Prevention 59 (July): 537–47.
Burt, Peter, and George Sperling. 1981. “Time, Distance, and Feature Trade-Offs in Visual Apparent Motion.” Psychological Review 88 (2): 171.
Button, Katherine S., John P. a. Ioannidis, Claire Mokrysz, Brian a. Nosek, Jonathan Flint, Emma S. J. Robinson, and Marcus R. Munafò. 2013. “Power Failure: Why Small Sample Size Undermines the Reliability of Neuroscience.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14 (May): 365–76.
Callahan-Flintoft, Chloe, Alex O. Holcombe, and Brad Wyble. 2020. “A Delay in Sampling Information from Temporally Autocorrelated Visual Stimuli.” Nature Communications 11 (1): 1852.
Carlson, Thomas, George Alvarez, and Patrick Cavanagh. 2007. “Quadrantic Deficit Reveals Anatomical Constraints on Selection.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (33): 13496–500.
Chen, Wei-Ying, Piers D Howe, and Alex O Holcombe. 2013. “Resource Demands of Object Tracking and Differential Allocation of the Resource.” Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 75 (4): 710–25.
Chesney, Dana L., and Harry Haroutioun Haladjian. 2011. “Evidence for a Shared Mechanism Used in Multiple-Object Tracking and Subitizing.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73 (8): 2457–80.
Chin, Jason M., Justin T. Pickett, Simine Vazire, and Alex O. Holcombe. 2021. “Questionable Research Practices and Open Science in Quantitative Criminology.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, August.
Cohen, Marlene R., and John HR Maunsell. 2011. “Using Neuronal Populations to Study the Mechanisms Underlying Spatial and Feature Attention.” Neuron 70 (6): 1192–1204.
Cohen, Michael, Yair Pinto, Piers D L Howe, and Todd S Horowitz. 2011. “The What-Where Trade-Off in Multiple-Identity Tracking.” Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 73 (5): 1422–34.
Cotton, Philippa L., and Andrew T. Smith. 2007. “Contralateral Visual Hemifield Representations in the Human Pulvinar Nucleus.” Journal of Neurophysiology 98 (3): 1600–1609.
Cowan, Nelson. 2001. “The Magical Number 4 in Short-Term Memory: A Reconsideration of Mental Storage Capacity.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1): 87–114.
Crowe, Emily M., Christina J. Howard, Angela S. Attwood, and Christopher Kent. 2019. “Goal-Directed Unequal Attention Allocation During Multiple Object Tracking.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 81 (5): 1312–26.
Culham, J C, P Cavanagh, and N G Kanwisher. 2001. Attention Response Functions: Characterizing Brain Areas Using fMRI Activation During Parametric Variations of Attentional Load. Neuron 32 (4): 737–45.
Davis, Greg, and Amanda Holmes. 2005. “Reversal of Object-Based Benefits in Visual Attention.” Visual Cognition 12 (5): 817–46.
Delvenne, Jean-François. 2005. “The Capacity of Visual Short-Term Memory Within and Between Hemifields.” Cognition 96 (3): B79–88.
Delvenne, JFCM. 2012. “Visual Short-Term Memory and the Bilateral Field Advantage.” In Short-Term Memory: New Research. Nova Publishers.
Dimond, Stuart, and Graham Beaumont. 1971. “Use of Two Cerebral Hemispheres to Increase Brain Capacity.” Nature 232 (5308): 270–71.
Doran, Matthew M., and James E. Hoffman. 2010. “The Role of Visual Attention in Multiple Object Tracking: Evidence from ERPs.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 72 (1): 33–52.
Drew, Trafton, Irida Mance, Todd S. Horowitz, Jeremy M. Wolfe, and Edward K. Vogel. 2014. “A Soft Handoff of Attention Between Cerebral Hemispheres.” Current Biology 24 (10): 1133–37.
Eayrs, Joshua, and Nilli Lavie. 2018. “Establishing Individual Differences in Perceptual Capacity.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 44 (8): 1240.
Editors, Wikipedia. 2021. “Multiple Object Tracking.” Wikipedia, September.
Edwards, Grace, Anna Berestova, and Lorella Battelli. 2021. “Behavioral Gain Following Isolation of Attention.” Scientific Reports 11 (1): 19329.
Egly, Robert, Jon Driver, and Robert D. Rafal. 1994. “Shifting Visual Attention Between Objects and Locations: Evidence from Normal and Parietal Lesion Subjects.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 123 (2): 161.
Falkner, Annegret L, B Suresh Krishna, and Michael E Goldberg. 2010. “Surround Suppression Sharpens the Priority Map in the Lateral Intraparietal Area.” The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 (38): 12787–97.
Faubert, J, and M Von Grunau. 1995. “The Influence of Two Spatially Distinct Primers and Attribute Priming on Motion Induction.” Vision Research 35 (22): 3119–30.
Fecteau, J, and D Munoz. 2006. “Salience, Relevance, and Firing: A Priority Map for Target Selection.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (8): 382–90.
Fehd, Hilda M., and Adriane E. Seiffert. 2008. “Eye Movements During Multiple Object Tracking: Where Do Participants Look?” Cognition 108 (1): 201–9.
Fencsik, David E, Sara B Klieger, and Todd S Horowitz. 2007. The Role of Location and Motion Information in the Tracking and Recovery of Moving Objects. Perception & Psychophysics 69 (4): 567–77.
Feria, Cary S. 2013. “Speed Has an Effect on Multiple-Object Tracking Independently of the Number of Close Encounters Between Targets and Distractors.” Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 75 (1): 53–67.
Fodor, Jerry A. 1983. The Modularity of Mind. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Fortenbaugh, Francesca C., Joseph DeGutis, Laura Germine, Jeremy B. Wilmer, Mallory Grosso, Kathryn Russo, and Michael Esterman. 2015. “Sustained Attention Across the Life Span in a Sample of 10,000: Dissociating Ability and Strategy.” Psychological Science 26 (9): 1497–1510.
Fougnie, Daryl, and René Marois. 2006. “Distinct Capacity Limits for Attention and Working Memory: Evidence From Attentive Tracking and Visual Working Memory Paradigms.” Psychological Science 17 (6): 526–34.
Francis, Gregory, and Evelina Thunell. 2022. “Excess Success in Articles on Object-Based Attention.” Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 84.
Franconeri, S. L., S. V. Jonathan, and J. M. Scimeca. 2010. “Tracking Multiple Objects Is Limited Only by Object Spacing, Not by Speed, Time, or Capacity.” Psychological Science 21 (7): 920–25.
Franconeri, S. L., J. Y. Lin, Z. W. Pylyshyn, B. Fisher, and J. T. Enns. 2008. “Evidence Against a Speed Limit in Multiple-Object Tracking.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 15 (4): 802–8.
Franconeri, Steven L. 2013. “The Nature and Status of Visual Resources.” In Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology, edited by D Reisberg. Vol. 8481. Oxford University Press.
Franconeri, Steven L., George A Alvarez, and Patrick Cavanagh. 2013a. “Resource Theory Is Not a Theory: A Reply to Holcombe.”
Franconeri, Steven L, George A Alvarez, and Patrick Cavanagh. 2013b. “Flexible Cognitive Resources : Competitive Content Maps for Attention and Memory.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3): 134–41.
Goodale, Melvyn A., and A.David Milner. 1992. “Separate Visual Pathways for Perception and Action.” Trends in Neurosciences 15 (1): 20–25.
Gurnsey, Rick, G Roddy, and W Chanab. 2011. “Crowding Is Size and Eccentricity Dependent.” Journal of Vision 11: 1–17.
Hagler Jr, Donald J., and Martin I. Sereno. 2006. “Spatial Maps in Frontal and Prefrontal Cortex.” Neuroimage 29 (2): 567–77.
Harrison, William J., Alvin J. Ayeni, and Peter J. Bex. 2019. “Attentional Selection and Illusory Surface Appearance.” Scientific Reports 9 (1): 2227.
Harrison, William J., and Reuben Rideaux. 2019. “Voluntary Control of Illusory Contour Formation.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 81 (5): 1522–31.
Hayhoe, Mary M., David G. Bensinger, and Dana H. Ballard. 1998. “Task Constraints in Visual Working Memory.” Vision Research 38 (1): 125–37.
Hedge, Craig, Georgina Powell, and Petroc Sumner. 2018. “The Reliability Paradox: Why Robust Cognitive Tasks Do Not Produce Reliable Individual Differences.” Behavior Research Methods 50 (3): 1166–86.
Hemond, Christopher C., Nancy G. Kanwisher, and Hans P. Op de Beeck. 2007. “A Preference for Contralateral Stimuli in Human Object- and Face-Selective Cortex.” Edited by Pier Ferrari. PLoS ONE 2 (6): e574.
Hogendoorn, Hinze, Thomas A. Carlson, and Frans AJ Verstraten. 2007. “The Time Course of Attentive Tracking.” Journal of Vision 7 (14): 2–2.
Holcombe, A O. 2009. “Temporal Binding Favours the Early Phase of Colour Changes, but Not of Motion Changes, Yielding the Colour-Motion Asynchrony Illusion.” Visual Cognition 17 (1-2): 232–53.
Holcombe, Alex O. 2019. “Comment: Capacity Limits Are Caused by a Finite Resource, Not Spatial Competition.” PsyArXiv.
———. 2022. “Object Separation in Time Imposes Severe Constraints on Multiple Object Tracking.”
Holcombe, Alex O., and Wei-Ying Chen. 2012. “Exhausting Attentional Tracking Resources with a Single Fast-Moving Object.” Cognition 123 (2).
Holcombe, Alex O, and Wei-ying Chen. 2013. “Splitting Attention Reduces Temporal Resolution from 7 Hz for Tracking One Object to \(<\)3 Hz When Tracking Three.” Journal of Vision 13 (1): 1–19.
Holcombe, Alex O, W Chen, and Piers D L Howe. 2014. “Object Tracking: Absence of Long-Range Spatial Interference Supports Resource Theories.” Journal of Vision 14 (6): 1–21.
Holt, Jessica L., and Jean-François Delvenne. 2015. “A Bilateral Advantage for Maintaining Objects in Visual Short Term Memory.” Acta Psychologica 154 (January): 54–61.
Horowitz, Todd S, Sarah B Klieger, David E Fencsik, Kevin K Yang, George a Alvarez, and Jeremy M Wolfe. 2007. “Tracking Unique Objects.” Perception & Psychophysics 69 (2): 172–84.
Horowitz, Todd, and Anne Treisman. 1994. “Attention and Apparent Motion.” Spatial Vision 8 (2): 193–220.
Howard, Christina J., and Alex O. Holcombe. 2008. “Tracking the Changing Features of Multiple Objects: Progressively Poorer Perceptual Precision and Progressively Greater Perceptual Lag.” Vision Research 48 (9): 1164–80.
Howe, Piers D L, Michael A Cohen, and Todd S Horowitz. 2010. “Distinguishing Between Parallel and Serial Accounts of Multiple Object Tracking.” Journal of Vision 10: 1–13.
Howe, Piers D L, Alex O Holcombe, Mark D Lapierre, and Simon J Cropper. 2013. “Visually Tracking and Localizing Expanding and Contracting Objects.” Perception 42 (12): 1281–1300.
Howe, Piers D L, Yair Pinto, and Todd S Horowitz. 2010. “The Coordinate Systems Used in Visual Tracking.” Vision Research 50 (23): 2375–80.
Howe, Piers D. L., and Adam Ferguson. 2015. “The Identity-Location Binding Problem.” Cognitive Science 39 (7): 1622–45.
Howe, Piers D, Todd S Horowitz, Jeremy Wolfe, and Margaret S Livingstone. 2009. “Using fMRI to Distinguish Components of the Multiple Object Tracking Task.” Journal of Vision 9 (4): 1–11.
Howe, Piers D, Natalie C Incledon, and Daniel R Little. 2012. “Can Attention Be Confined to Just Part of a Moving Object? Revisiting Target-Distractor Merging in Multiple Object Tracking.” PloS One 7 (7): e41491.
Howe, Piers DL, and Alex O. Holcombe. 2012. “Motion Information Is Sometimes Used as an Aid to the Visual Tracking of Objects.” Journal of Vision 12 (13): 1–10.
Huang, Liqiang, Lei Mo, and Ying Li. 2012. “Measuring the Interrelations Among Multiple Paradigms of Visual Attention: An Individual Differences Approach.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 38 (2): 414.
Hudson, Charlotte, Piers DL Howe, and Daniel R. Little. 2012. “Hemifield Effects in Multiple Identity Tracking.” PloS One 7 (8): e43796.
Hung, G K, J Wilder, R Curry, and B Julesz. 1995. Simultaneous Better Than Sequential for Brief Presentations. Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision 12 (3): 441–49.
Hyönä, Jukka, Jie Li, and Lauri Oksama. 2019. “Eye Behavior During Multiple Object Tracking and Multiple Identity Tracking.” Vision 3 (3): 37.
Intriligator, J, and P Cavanagh. 2001. “The Spatial Resolution of Visual Attention.” Cognitive Psychology 43 (3): 171–216.
James, William. 1890. The Principles of Psychology, Vol I. The Principles of Psychology, Vol I. New York, NY, US: Henry Holt and Co.
Johansson, G. 1973. “Visual Perception of Biological Motion and a Model for Its Analysis.” Perception & Psychophysics 14: 201–11.
John, Leslie K., George Loewenstein, and Drazen Prelec. 2012. “Measuring the Prevalence of Questionable Research Practices With Incentives for Truth Telling.” Psychological Science 23 (5): 524–32.
Joo, Sung Jun, Alex L. White, Douglas J. Strodtman, and Jason D. Yeatman. 2018. “Optimizing Text for an Individual’s Visual System: The Contribution of Visual Crowding to Reading Difficulties.” Cortex 103 (June): 291–301.
Jovicich, J, R J Peters, C Koch, J Braun, L Chang, and T Ernst. 2001. “Brain Areas Specific for Attentional Load in a Motion-Tracking Task.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13 (8): 1048–58.
Kahneman, D, A Treisman, and B J Gibbs. 1992. The Reviewing of Object Files: Object-Specific Integration of Information. Cognitive Psychology 24 (2): 175–219.
Kennedy, Graeme J., Srimant P. Tripathy, and Brendan T. Barrett. 2009. “Early Age-Related Decline in the Effective Number of Trajectories Tracked in Adult Human Vision.” Journal of Vision 9 (2): 21–21.
Kimchi, Ruth, and Mary A. Peterson. 2008. “Figure-Ground Segmentation Can Occur Without Attention.” Psychological Science 19 (7): 660–68.
Kolers, Paul A., and James R. Pomerantz. 1971. “Figural Change in Apparent Motion.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1): 99.
Korte, Wilhelm. 1923. “Über Die Gestaltauffassung Im Indirekten Sehen.” Zeitschrift Für Psychologie 93: 17–82.
Kubovy, Michael, Alex O. Holcombe, and Johan Wagemans. 1998. “On the Lawfulness of Grouping by Proximity.” Cognitive Psychology 35 (1): 71–98.
Li, Jie, Lauri Oksama, and Jukka Hyönä. 2019. “Model of Multiple Identity Tracking (MOMIT) 2.0: Resolving the Serial Vs. Parallel Controversy in Tracking.” Cognition 182 (January): 260–74.
Liu, Geniva, Erin L Austen, Kellogg S Booth, Brian D Fisher, Ritchie Argue, Mark I Rempel, and James T Enns. 2005. “Multiple-Object Tracking Is Based on Scene, Not Retinal, Coordinates.” Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 31 (2): 235–47.
Liu, Tingting, Yi Jiang, Xinghuai Sun, and Sheng He. 2009. “Reduction of the Crowding Effect in Spatially Adjacent but Cortically Remote Visual Stimuli.” Current Biology 19 (2): 127–32.
Lo, Shih-Yu, and Alex O. Holcombe. 2014. “How Do We Select Multiple Features? Transient Costs for Selecting Two Colors Rather Than One, Persistent Costs for Colorlocation Conjunctions.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 76 (2): 304–21.
Lochner, Martin J, and Lana M Trick. 2014. “Multiple-Object Tracking While Driving: The Multiple-Vehicle Tracking Task.” Attention, Perception & Psychophysics 76: 2326–45.
Lou, Hao, Monicque M. Lorist, and Karin S. Pilz. 2020. “Individual Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Object-Based Attention and the Rhythmic Sampling of Visual Space.” PsyArXiv.
Lovett, Andrew, Will Bridewell, and Paul Bello. 2019. “Selection Enables Enhancement: An Integrated Model of Object Tracking.” Journal of Vision 19 (14): 23.
Luck, S J, S A Hillyard, G R Mangun, and M S Gazzaniga. 1989. “Independent Hemispheric Attentional Systems Mediate Visual Search in Split-Brain Patients.” Nature 342 (6249): 543–45.
Luck, Steven J., Steven A. Hillyard, George R. Mangun, and Michael S. Gazzaniga. 1994. “Independent Attentional Scanning in the Separated Hemispheres of Split-Brain Patients.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 6 (1): 84–91.
Lukavskỳ, Jiří. 2013. “Eye Movements in Repeated Multiple Object Tracking.” Journal of Vision 13 (7): 1–16.
Lunghi, Claudia, David C. Burr, and Concetta Morrone. 2011. “Brief Periods of Monocular Deprivation Disrupt Ocular Balance in Human Adult Visual Cortex.” Current Biology 21 (14): R538–39.
Luu, Tina, and Piers D. L. Howe. 2015. “Extrapolation Occurs in Multiple Object Tracking When Eye Movements Are Controlled.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 77: 1919–29.
Mackenzie, Andrew K., and Julie M. Harris. 2017. “A Link Between Attentional Function, Effective Eye Movements, and Driving Ability.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 43 (2): 381.
Mackenzie, Andrew K., Mike L. Vernon, Paul R. Cox, David Crundall, Rosie C. Daly, Duncan Guest, Alexander Muhl-Richardson, and Christina J. Howard. 2022. “The Multiple Object Avoidance (MOA) Task Measures Attention for Action: Evidence from Driving and Sport.” Behavior Research Methods 54: 1508–29.
Maechler, Marvin R., Patrick Cavanagh, and Peter U. Tse. 2021. “Attentional Tracking Takes Place over Perceived Rather Than Veridical Positions.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 83: 1455–62.
Makovski, Tal, and Yuhong V. Jiang. 2009. “Feature Binding in Attentive Tracking of Distinct Objects.” Visual Cognition 17 (1-2): 180–94.
Mareschal, Isabelle, Michael J Morgan, and Joshua A Solomon. 2010. Attentional Modulation of Crowding. Vision Research 50 (8): 805–9.
Maruya, Kazushi, Alex O Holcombe, and Shinya Nishida. 2013. “Rapid Encoding of Relationships Between Spatially Remote Motion Signals.” Journal of Vision 13 (4): 1–20.
Matthews, Nestor, and Leslie Welch. 2015. “Left Visual Field Attentional Advantage in Judging Simultaneity and Temporal Order.” Journal of Vision 15 (2): 7.
Merkel, Christian, Jens-Max Hopf, and Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld. 2017. “Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Attentional Selection Stages During Multiple Object Tracking.” NeuroImage 146 (February): 484–91.
Merkel, Christian, Christian M. Stoppel, Steven A. Hillyard, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Jens-Max Hopf, and Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld. 2014. “Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Brain Activity Distinguish Strategies of Multiple-Object Tracking.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 26 (1): 28–40.
Mesulam, M.-Marsel. 1999. “Spatial Attention and Neglect: Parietal, Frontal and Cingulate Contributions to the Mental Representation and Attentional Targeting of Salient Extrapersonal Events.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 354 (1387): 1325–46.
Meyerhoff, Hauke S., and Frank Papenmeier. 2020. “Individual Differences in Visual Attention: A Short, Reliable, Open-Source, and Multilingual Test of Multiple Object Tracking in PsychoPy.” Behavior Research Methods 52 (6): 2556–66.
Meyerhoff, Hauke S., Frank Papenmeier, Georg Jahn, and Markus Huff. 2015. “Distractor Locations Influence Multiple Object Tracking Beyond Interobject Spacing: Evidence From Equidistant Distractor Displacements.” Experimental Psychology 62 (3): 170–80.
Miller, George A. 1956. “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information.” Psychological Review 63 (2): 81.
Minami, Tetsuto, Takahiro Shinkai, and Shigeki Nakauchi. 2019. “Hemifield Crossings During Multiple Object Tracking Affect Task Performance and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials.” Neuroscience 409 (June): 162–68.
Nakayama, Ken, Zijiang J. He, and Shinsuke Shimojo. 1995. “Visual Surface Representation: A Critical Link Between Lower-Level and Higher-Level Vision.” Visual Cognition: An Invitation to Cognitive Science 2: 1–70.
Neisser, Ulric. 1963. “Decision-Time Without Reaction-Time: Experiments in Visual Scanning.” The American Journal of Psychology 76 (3): 376.
Ngiam, William XQ, Kimberley LC Khaw, Alex O. Holcombe, and Patrick T. Goodbourn. 2019. “Visual Working Memory for Letters Varies with Familiarity but Not Complexity.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 45 (10): 1761.
Norman, D A, and D G Bobrow. 1975. “On Data-Limited and Resource-Limited Processes.” Cognitive Psychology 7: 44–64.
Nummenmaa, Lauri, Lauri Oksama, Erico Glerean, and Jukka Hyönä. 2017. “Cortical Circuit for Binding Object Identity and Location During Multiple-Object Tracking.” Cerebral Cortex 27 (1): 162–72.
O’Regan, J. Kevin. 1992. “Solving the" Real" Mysteries of Visual Perception: The World as an Outside Memory.” Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie 46 (3): 461.
O’Reilly, Randall C., Charan Ranganath, and Jacob L. Russin. 2022. “The Structure of Systematicity in the Brain.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 31 (2): 124–30.
Oberauer, Klaus. 2002. “Access to Information in Working Memory: Exploring the Focus of Attention.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28 (3): 411.
Oberauer, Klaus, Stephan Lewandowsky, Edward Awh, Gordon DA Brown, Andrew Conway, Nelson Cowan, Christopher Donkin, Simon Farrell, Graham J. Hitch, and Mark J. Hurlstone. 2018. “Benchmarks for Models of Short-Term and Working Memory.” Psychological Bulletin 144 (9): 885.
Oksama, Lauri, and Jukka Hyönä. 2004. “Is Multiple Object Tracking Carried Out Automatically by an Early Vision Mechanism Independent of Higher-Order Cognition? An Individual Difference Approach.” Visual Cognition 11 (5): 631–71.
———. 2016. “Position Tracking and Identity Tracking Are Separate Systems: Evidence from Eye Movements.” Cognition 146: 393–409.
Ongchoco, Joan Danielle K., and Brian J. Scholl. 2019. “How to Create Objects With Your Mind: From Object-Based Attention to Attention-Based Objects.” Psychological Science 30 (11): 1648–55.
Pailian, Hrag, Susan E. Carey, Justin Halberda, and Irene M. Pepperberg. 2020. “Age and Species Comparisons of Visual Mental Manipulation Ability as Evidence for Its Development and Evolution.” Scientific Reports 10 (1): 1–7.
Palmer, John. 1995. “Attention in Visual Search: Distinguishing Four Causes of a Set-Size Effect.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 4 (4): 118–23.
Papenmeier, Frank, Hauke S. Meyerhoff, Georg Jahn, and Markus Huff. 2014. “Tracking by Location and Features: Object Correspondence Across Spatiotemporal Discontinuities During Multiple Object Tracking.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40 (1): 159.
Pelli, Denis G., and Katharine A. Tillman. 2008. “The Uncrowded Window of Object Recognition.” Nature Neuroscience 11 (10): 1129–35.
Peter, U. Tse. 2005. “Voluntary Attention Modulates the Brightness of Overlapping Transparent Surfaces.” Vision Research 45 (9): 1095–98.
Peterson, Mary A. 2014. “Low-Level and High-level Contributions to Figure.” In, edited by Johan Wagemans. Oxford University Press.
Petrov, Yury, and Olga Meleshkevich. 2011. “Asymmetries and Idiosyncratic Hot Spots in Crowding.” Vision Research 51 (10): 1117–23.
Piazza, Manuela. 2010. “Neurocognitive Start-up Tools for Symbolic Number Representations.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (12): 542–51.
Pilz, Karin S., Alexa B. Roggeveen, Sarah E. Creighton, Patrick J. Bennett, and Allison B. Sekuler. 2012. “How Prevalent Is Object-Based Attention?” Edited by Suliann Ben Hamed. PLoS ONE 7 (2): e30693.
Proffitt, Dennis R, Mary K Kaiser, and Susan M Whelan. 1990. “Understanding Wheel Dynamics.” Cognitive Psychology 22 (3): 342–73.
Pylyshyn, Z. 2001. “Visual Indexes, Preconceptual Objects, and Situated Vision.” Cognition 80: 127–58.
Pylyshyn, Z W. 2007. Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Pylyshyn, Z W, and R W Storm. 1988. “Tracking Multiple Independent Targets: Evidence for a Parallel Tracking Mechanism.” Spatial Vision 3 (3): 179–97.
Pylyshyn, Z., J. Burkell, B. Fisher, C. Sears, W. Schmidt, and L. Trick. 1994. “Multiple Parallel Access in Visual Attention.” Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale 48 (2): 260.
Pylyshyn, Zenon. 1989. “The Role of Location Indexes in Spatial Perception: A Sketch of the FINST Spatial-Index Model.” Cognition 32 (1): 65–97.
———. 2004. “Some Puzzling Findings in Multiple Object Tracking: I. Tracking Without Keeping Track of Object Identities.” Visual Cognition 11 (7): 801–22.
Pylyshyn, Zenon W. 2006. Seeing and Visualizing: It’s Not What You Think. 1. MIT Press paperback ed. Life and Mind. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Rabelo, André L. A., Jéssica E. M. Farias, Maurício M. Sarmet, Teresa C. R. Joaquim, Raquel C. Hoersting, Luiz Victorino, João G. N. Modesto, and Ronaldo Pilati. 2020. “Questionable Research Practices Among Brazilian Psychological Researchers: Results from a Replication Study and an International Comparison.” International Journal of Psychology 55 (4): 674–83.
Redick, Thomas S., and Randall W. Engle. 2006. “Working Memory Capacity and Attention Network Test Performance.” Applied Cognitive Psychology: The Official Journal of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition 20 (5): 713–21.
Reichle, Erik D., Simon P. Liversedge, Alexander Pollatsek, and Keith Rayner. 2009. “Encoding Multiple Words Simultaneously in Reading Is Implausible.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (February): 115–19.
Rensink, Ronald. 2000. “Visual Search for Change: A Probe into the Nature of Attentional Processing.” Visual Cognition 7 (1): 345–76.
Revkin, Susannah K., Manuela Piazza, Véronique Izard, Laurent Cohen, and Stanislas Dehaene. 2008. “Does Subitizing Reflect Numerical Estimation?” Psychological Science 19 (6): 607–14.
Rizzolatti, Giacomo, Carlo Umiltà, and Giovanni Berlucchi. 1971. “Opposite Superiorities of the Right and Left Cerebral Hemispheres in Discriminative Reaction Time to Physiognomical and Alphabetical Material.” Brain: A Journal of Neurology 94 (3): 431–42.
Robinson, Maria M., Aaron S. Benjamin, and David E. Irwin. 2020. “Is There a K in Capacity? Assessing the Structure of Visual Short-Term Memory.” Cognitive Psychology 121 (September): 101305.
Roudaia, Eugenie, and Jocelyn Faubert. 2017. “Different Effects of Aging and Gender on the Temporal Resolution in Attentional Tracking.” Journal of Vision 17 (11): 1.
Saenz, Melissa, Giedrius T Buracas, and Geoffrey M Boynton. 2002. “Global Effects of Feature-Based Attention in Human Visual Cortex.” Nature Neuroscience 5 (7): 631–32.
Saiki, J, and Alex O Holcombe. 2012. “Blindness to a Simultaneous Change of All Elements in a Scene, Unless There Is a Change in Summary Statistics.” Journal of Vision 12: 1–11.
Saiki, Jun. 2002. “Multiple-Object Permanence Tracking: Limitation in Maintenance and Transformation of Perceptual Objects.” Progress in Brain Research 140: 133–48.
———. 2019. “Robust Color-Shape Binding Representations for Multiple Objects in Visual Working Memory.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148 (5): 905–25.
Schneider, Keith A., and Sabine Kastner. 2005. “Visual Responses of the Human Superior Colliculus: A High-Resolution Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.” Journal of Neurophysiology 94 (4): 2491–2503.
Scholl, B. 2001. “Objects and Attention: The State of the Art.” Cognition 80 (1/2): 1–46.
Scholl, B J, Z W Pylyshyn, and J Feldman. 2001. “What Is a Visual Object? Evidence from Target Merging in Multiple Object Tracking.” Cognition 80 (1-2): 159–77.
Scholl, Brian J. 2009. “What Have We Learned about Attention from Multiple-Object Tracking ( and Vice Versa )?” In Computation, Cognition, and Pylyshyn, 49–78. MIT Press.
Scholl, Brian J., Daniel J. Simons, and Daniel T. Levin. 2004. “’Change Blindness’ Blindness: An Implicit Measure of a Metacognitive Error.” In Thinking and Seeing: Visual Metacognition in Adults and Children. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Schönbrodt, Felix D., and Marco Perugini. 2013. “At What Sample Size Do Correlations Stabilize?” Journal of Research in Personality 47 (5): 609–12.
Sekuler, Robert, Chris McLaughlin, and Yuko Yotsumoto. 2008. “Age-Related Changes in Attentional Tracking of Multiple Moving Objects.” Perception 37 (6): 867–76.
Sereno, Anne B., and Stephen M. Kosslyn. 1991. “Discrimination Within and Between Hemifields: A New Constraint on Theories of Attention.” Neuropsychologia 29 (7): 659–75.
Sereno, M. I., S. Pitzalis, and A. Martinez. 2001. “Mapping of Contralateral Space in Retinotopic Coordinates by a Parietal Cortical Area in Humans.” Science 294 (5545): 1350–54.
Shiffrin, Richard M., and Gerald T. Gardner. 1972. “Visual Processing Capacity and Attentional Control.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (1): 72.
Shim, W. M., G. a. Alvarez, and Y. V. Jiang. 2008. “Spatial Separation Between Targets Constrains Maintenance of Attention on Multiple Objects.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 15 (2): 390–97.
Shim, Won Mok, G a Alvarez, T J Vickery, and Y V Jiang. 2010. “The Number of Attentional Foci and Their Precision Are Dissociated in the Posterior Parietal Cortex.” Cerebral Cortex 20 (6): 1341–49.
Shomstein, Sarah, and Marlene Behrmann. 2008. “Object-Based Attention: Strength of Object Representation and Attentional Guidance.” Perception & Psychophysics 70 (1): 132–44.
Shomstein, Sarah, and Steven Yantis. 2002. “Object-Based Attention: Sensory Modulation or Priority Setting?” Perception & Psychophysics 64 (1): 41–51.
Simon, Herbert A. 1969. The Sciences of the Artificial, Reissue of the Third Edition with a New Introduction by John Laird. 3rd edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Academic.
Simons, Daniel J., Walter R. Boot, Neil Charness, Susan E. Gathercole, Christopher F. Chabris, David Z. Hambrick, and Elizabeth AL Stine-Morrow. 2016. “Do ‘Brain-Training’ Programs Work?” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 17 (3): 103–86.
Sternberg, Saul. 1969. “The Discovery of Processing Stages: Extensions of Donders’ Method.” Acta Psychologica 30: 276–315.
Störmer, Viola S, George a Alvarez, and Patrick Cavanagh. 2014. “Within-Hemifield Competition in Early Visual Areas Limits the Ability to Track Multiple Objects with Attention.” The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 (35): 11526–33.
Strasburger, Hans. 2014. “Dancing Letters and Ticks That Buzz Around Aimlessly: On the Origin of Crowding.” Perception 43 (9): 963–76.
Strong, Roger W., and George A. Alvarez. 2020. “Hemifield-Specific Control of Spatial Attention and Working Memory: Evidence from Hemifield Crossover Costs.” Journal of Vision 20 (8): 24.
Suchow, Jordan W, and George A Alvarez. 2011. “Motion Silences Awareness of Visual Change.” Current Biology 21 (2): 140–43.
Tadin, Duje, Joseph S. Lappin, Randolph Blake, and Emily D. Grossman. 2002. “What Constitutes an Efficient Reference Frame for Vision?” Nature Neuroscience 5 (10): 1010–15.
Tombu, Michael, and Adriane E. Seiffert. 2011. “Tracking Planets and Moons: Mechanisms of Object Tracking Revealed with a New Paradigm.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73 (November): 738–50.
Tombu, M, and A E Seiffert. 2008. “Attentional Costs in Multiple-Object Tracking.” Cognition 108: 1–25.
Townsend, James T. 1990. “Serial Vs. Parallel Processing: Sometimes They Look Like Tweedledum and Tweedledee but They Can (and Should) Be Distinguished.” Psychological Science 1 (1): 46–54.
Treisman, A, and G Gelade. 1980. “A Feature Integration Theory of Attention.” Cognitive Psychology 12: 97–136.
Treisman, Anne M. 1964. “Verbal Cues, Language, and Meaning in Selective Attention.” The American Journal of Psychology 77 (2): 206.
Treisman, Anne, and Hilary Schmidt. 1982. “Illusory Conjunctions in the Perception of Objects.” Cognitive Psychology 14: 107–41.
Treviño, Melissa, Xiaoshu Zhu, Yi Yi Lu, Luke S. Scheuer, Eliza Passell, Grace C. Huang, Laura T. Germine, and Todd S. Horowitz. 2021. “How Do We Measure Attention? Using Factor Analysis to Establish Construct Validity of Neuropsychological Tests.” Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications 6 (1): 51.
Trick, Lana M., Rachna Mutreja, and Kelly Hunt. 2012. “Spatial and Visuospatial Working Memory Tests Predict Performance in Classic Multiple-Object Tracking in Young Adults, but Nonspatial Measures of the Executive Do Not.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 74 (2): 300–311.
Trick, Lana M., Tahlia Perl, and Naina Sethi. 2005. “Age-Related Differences in Multiple-Object Tracking.” The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 60 (2): P102–5.
Tse, Peter, Patrick Cavanagh, and Ken Nakayama. 1998. “The Role of Parsing in High-Level Motion Processing.” High-Level Motion Processing: Computational, Neurobiological, and Psychophysical Perspectives, 249–66.
Tsotsos, J K, S M Culhane, WYKW Wai, Y Lai, N Davis, and F Nuflo. 1995. “Modeling Visual Attention via Selective Tuning.” Artificial Intelligence 78: 507–45.
Tsotsos, John K, Antonio J Rodríguez-Sánchez, Albert L Rothenstein, and Eugene Simine. 2008. “The Different Stages of Visual Recognition Need Different Attentional Binding Strategies.” Brain Research 1225 (2007): 119–32.
Umemoto, Akina, Trafton Drew, Edward F Ester, and Edward Awh. 2010. “A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory.” Cognition 117 (1): 69–79.
Van der Burg, Erik, John Cass, and Jan Theeuwes. 2019. “Changes (but Not Differences) in Motion Direction Fail to Capture Attention.” Vision Research 165 (December): 54–63.
VanMarle, K, and Brian J Scholl. 2003. “Attentive Tracking of Objects Versus Substances.” Psychological Science 14 (5): 498–504.
Vater, Christian, Rob Gray, and Alex O. Holcombe. 2021. “A Critical Systematic Review of the Neurotracker Perceptual-Cognitive Training Tool.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 28 (April): 1458–83.
Vater, Christian, Ralf Kredel, and Ernst-Joachim Hossner. 2017. “Disentangling Vision and Attention in Multiple-Object Tracking: How Crowding and Collisions Affect Gaze Anchoring and Dual-Task Performance.” Journal of Vision 17 (5): 1–13.
Vogel, Edward K, Geoffrey F Woodman, and Steven J Luck. 2006. “The Time Course of Consolidation in Visual Working Memory.” Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 32 (6): 1436–51.
Wang, Li, Kan Zhang, Sheng He, and Yi Jiang. 2010. “Searching for Life Motion Signals: Visual Search Asymmetry in Local but Not Global Biological-Motion Processing.” Psychological Science 21 (8): 1083–89.
Wang, Yang, and Edward Vul. 2021. “The Role of Kinematic Properties in Multiple Object Tracking.” Journal of Vision 21 (3): 1–15.
Wannig, Aurel, Liviu Stanisor, and Pieter R. Roelfsema. 2011. “Automatic Spread of Attentional Response Modulation Along Gestalt Criteria in Primary Visual Cortex.” Nature Neuroscience 14 (10): 1243–44.
Warren, Paul A., and Simon K. Rushton. 2007. “Perception of Object Trajectory: Parsing Retinal Motion into Self and Object Movement Components.” Journal of Vision 7 (11): 2.
Wertheimer, Max. 1912. “Experimentelle Studien Über Das Sehen von Bewegung.” Zeitschrift Für Psychologie 61: 161–65.
White, Alex L, and Marisa Carrasco. 2011. “Feature-Based Attention Involuntarily and Simultaneously Improves Visual Performance Across Locations.” Journal of Vision 11 (6): 1–10.
White, Alex L., John Palmer, and Geoffrey M. Boynton. 2018. “Evidence of Serial Processing in Visual Word Recognition.” Psychological Science 29 (7): 1062–71.
White, Alex L., John Palmer, Geoffrey M. Boynton, and Jason D. Yeatman. 2019. “Parallel Spatial Channels Converge at a Bottleneck in Anterior Word-Selective Cortex.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (20): 10087–96.
Wilbiks, Jonathan M. P., and Annika Beatteay. 2020. “Individual Differences in Multiple Object Tracking, Attentional Cueing, and Age Account for Variability in the Capacity of Audiovisual Integration.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 82 (June): 3521–43.
Wolfe, Jeremy M. 2021. “Guided Search 6.0: An Updated Model of Visual Search.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 28 (4): 1060–92.
Wolfe, Jeremy M., and Sara C. Bennett. 1997. “Preattentive Object Files: Shapeless Bundles of Basic Features.” Vision Research 37 (1): 25–43.
Wolford, George. 1975. “Perturbation Model for Letter Identification.” Psychological Review 82 (3): 184.
Wu, Chia-Chien, and Jeremy M. Wolfe. 2018. “Comparing Eye Movements During Position Tracking and Identity Tracking: No Evidence for Separate Systems.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 80 (2): 453–60.
Wuerger, S, R Shapley, and N Rubin. 1996. “"On the Visually Perceived Direction of Motion" by Hans Wallach: 60 Years Later.” Perception 25: 1317–67.
Xu, Yangqing, and Steven L. Franconeri. 2015. “Capacity for Visual Features in Mental Rotation.” Psychological Science 26 (8): 1241–51.
Yantis, S. 1992. Multielement Visual Tracking: Attention and Perceptual Organization. Cognitive Psychology 24 (3): 295–340.
Yilmaz, Alper, Omar Javed, and Mubarak Shah. 2006. “Object Tracking: A Survey.” ACM Computing Surveys 38 (4): 13.
Zelinsky, Gregory J., and Mark B. Neider. 2008. “An Eye Movement Analysis of Multiple Object Tracking in a Realistic Environment.” Visual Cognition 16 (5): 553–66.
Zelinsky, Gregory J., and Andrei Todor. 2010. “The Role of ‘Rescue Saccades’ in Tracking Objects Through Occlusions.” Journal of Vision 10 (14): 1–13.
Zhang, Jun, and Shane T. Mueller. 2005. “A Note on ROC Analysis and Non-Parametric Estimate of Sensitivity.” Psychometrika 70 (1): 203–12.
Zylberberg, Ariel, Diego Fernández Slezak, Pieter R. Roelfsema, Stanislas Dehaene, and Mariano Sigman. 2010. “The Brain’s Router: A Cortical Network Model of Serial Processing in the Primate Brain.” PLoS Computational Biology 6 (4): e1000765.